Other forms of active transport have not been considered (e.g. scooters and skate boards), and some children may use both passive and active means to get to school. An internationally agreed definition of active travel which takes these factors into account is needed, which would enable comparisons to be made across countries.
Although schemes such as Bikeability are currently available, there has been a lack of improvement in cycling levels since 1995/97. Additional measures may be necessary including changes to the built environment (e.g. segregated cycle paths and traffic calming measures) in order to improve both cycle safety and bicycle use.
Active travel to non-school destinations is likely to be closely related to children's independent mobility, which in turn may be influenced by parental safety concerns. Intervention strategies which aim to alleviate any safety concerns are needed, particularly since active travel may provide a suitable means of encouraging increased physical activity among girls.
 Department for Transport. Table NTS0615: Usual mode of travel to school by age group: England, 2002 to 2015. DfT, 2016.
 Department for Transport. Table NTS0614: Trips to school by main mode, trip length and age: England, 2015. DfT, 2016.
 Department for Transport. Table NTS0613: Trips to and from school per child per year by main mode: England, 1995/97 to 2015. DfT, 2016.
 Platt L. Millennium Cohort Study: Initial findings from the age 11 survey. London, UK: Centre for Longitudinal Studies, 2014.
 Department for Transport. Table NTS0312: Walks of 20 minutes or more by age: England, 2014. DfT, 2015.
 Pucher J, Buehler R. Making cycling irresistible: lessons from The Netherlands, Denmark and Germany. Transport Reviews 2008;28:495-528.
 Roth M, Stamatakis E. Linking young people's knowledge of public health guidelines to physical activity levels in England. Pediatr Exerc Sci 2010;22:467-76.
*Primary school age = 5-10 year olds; Secondary school age = 11-16 year olds