public

Loading...

History of ESL methods

published by mpolat

Want to create a visual like this?

Get Started
Loading
HISTORY
ESL stands for 'English as a Second Language' and this infographic presents a historical overview of the most prominent methods and approaches used in teaching English as a second or foreign language!
of
ESL METHODS AND APPROACHES
THE
Illustrated by Mustafa Polat with Timeline 3D for Mac
Fortunately, this method is not widely used today in teaching English to English language learners. Yet, unfortunately, some aspects of this method are still employed to teach modern languages in the United States, primarily at the high school and university levels.
THE GRAMMAR-TRANSLATION METHOD
18th&19th Centuries through 1960s
Highlights
pros
cons
mother tongue detailed grammar focus memorization of vocabulary text translations behaviorist philosophy no focus on pronunciation
learning to translate writing practice
no daily-life communication practice out-of-context learning
The direct method was an answer to the dissatisfaction with the older grammar translation method. One of the most famous supporters of this method was the German Charles Berlitz, who founded the Berlitz chain of private language schools.
The direct -natural- method
1910-1930 through 1940s
Highlights
pros
cons
Lessons in the target language a focus on everyday vocabulary Visual aids to teach vocabulary the accuracy of pronunciation comprehension and oral expression
oral interaction no translation spontaneous use of language
requiring small-size classes difficulty in generating natural situations
The method became very popular in the 1960s. Language laboratories began to surge, and students were required to listen to audiotapes and repeat dialogues that captured aspects of daily living.
Audio-lingual "ARmy' method
1940s>1960s through 1970s
Highlights
pros
cons
Reaction to WWII the need for non-native speakers to sound native-like based on Behaviorist theory oral language proficiency emphasis on perfect pronunciation only target language
words used in context authentic dialogues
high affective filter memorization practice
Suggestopedia was developed by Bulgarian psychiatrist–educator Georgi Lozanov (1982), who wanted to eliminate the psychological barriers that people have to learning and claimed students can learn a language approximately three to five times as quickly as through conventional teaching methods.
SUGGESTOPEDIA
1970s>1980s through 1990s
Highlights
pros
cons
suggestion and pedagogy combined relaxation>presentation >relaxation>practice Baroque music/background music games/puzzles etc.
freedom highly student-centered low affective filter integration of music&art
no firm science behind more brain science than educational sciences no focus on grammar or authentic language
Developed by Caleb Gattegno, the Silent Way requires that the teachers remain silent much of the time, thus its name. In this method, students are responsible for their own learning.
SILENT WAY
1970>1980
pros
Highlights
cons
developing independence, autonomy, and responsibility for learning discovery learning, problem-solving approach teacher as a stimulator does not talk! cusinere rods and wall charts to introduce language
student-centered use of visuals getting students to produce language
students are not challenged no direct teaching not authentic, rather awkward
The total physical response (TPR) method was developed by psychologist James Asher (1974). This method is based on the principle that people learn better when they are involved physically as well as mentally.
TOTAL PHYSICAL RESPONSE "TPR"
1970>1980 THROUGH 1990s
pros
Highlights
cons
based on Chomsky's idea that language is pre-wired for language learning using physical response to verbal instruction
students can listen getting students to move physical activity and memory connection
not good for academic language not requiring students to produce language
The natural approach was originally created in 1977 by Terrell, a Spanish teacher in California. After the original formulation, Terrell worked with Krashen to further develop the theoretical aspects of the method. Terrell and Krashen published the results of their collaboration in the 1983 book The Natural Approach.
NATURAL APPROACH
1975>1980s THROUGH 1990s
pros
Highlights
cons
acquisition vs. learning the monitor hypothesis comprehensible input (i+1) the natural order hypothesis learners with low affective filter
naturalistic language acquisition more emphasis on exposure to language input reducing learners' anxiety
difficulty in creating a naturalistic language environment and stress-free atmosphere for the students
1
Sauvignon (1983, 1997, 2002) suggests designing the curriculum to include language arts, language-for-a-purpose (content-based and immersion) activities, personalized language use, theatre arts (including simula- tions, role-plays, and social interaction games), and language use “beyond the classroom”.
THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH
1985>2000s
pros
Highlights
cons
the communication principle real-life meaningful tasks authentic and meaningful use of language various activities appealing to all learning styles learning by doing
low affective filter, practicing oral skills meaningfully and in context, real-life like and meaningful
oral production is emphasized more
HISTORY
(Please copy the individual link you want to visit and paste in your browser address bar)   1. ESL Methods timeline (Prezi) http://tinyurl.com/lnuhedm 2. Methods/approaches of teaching ESOL: Historical Overview (Book Chapter) http://tinyurl.com/k2k9988 3 Quotes about methods from Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Language-teaching_methodology
of
ESL METHODS AND APPROACHES
THE
References:
an infographic by
mustafa polat
@muspol
imustafapolat. wordpress.com
u.arizona.edu/ ~mpolat