Students told us whether an incident happened once, rarely, sometimes, almost all of the time, or always
We asked high school students...
55.5% female, 63.8% African-American & 32.4% Caucasian, 60% Freshmen & Sophomores, 55.2% 15-16 years old.
Students told us more about the most serious incident, including how many peers harassed them. Mean # of aggressors was over 2, mode was 1.
Whether they had experienced any social rejection - in the form of physical (P), verbal (V), social (S), or cyber (C) bullying - in the past 6 months. Out of 447 students, the following % had experienced at least one incident.
Students were also asked whether they perceived they were targeted by someone they considered a member or members of their friend group, whether they were targeted by a member or members of a social group, or whether they were targeted because of their membership in a group.
Students also identified and self-labeled 10 different cliques at the school and one "other" classification (typically including self-labeled "lone wolves"). Four cliques were various "popular" groups (e.g., snobs, jocks, rich). These popular groups were identified as perpetrating more social (38.4%), cyber (39.4%), and verbal aggression (30%) than any of the other 7 individual groups. They also perpetrated 25.5% of physical aggression , where so-called "ghetto" youth were also identified as perpetrators 40.6% of the time.
Students were then asked how they responded to being targeted. Options included anti-social responses (e.g. , retaliation - doing to others what was done to me), asocial responses (e.g., withdrawal - keeping to myself), and pro-social responses (e.g., reaching out - doing nice things for others and getting help).