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England 2016 Report Card_Neighbourhood

published by AHKE16

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Neighbourhood & the Built Environment
2016:  B
2014:  B
A: 81%-100%      B: 61%-80%      C: 41%-60%      D: 21%-40%      F: 0%-20%      INC: Incomplete
Benchmarks and Key Findings
Four benchmarks were assessed as part of this indicator. The data used to grade each benchmark are described below. Overall, a B was awarded which was the same grade awarded to this indicator in 2014.
% of children/youth with access to outdoor parks and spaces
Access
Use
Satisfaction
Safety
% of children/youth who use outdoor parks and spaces
% of children/youth who are satisfied with their loacl outdoor parks and spaces
% of children and parents who think their neighbourhood is safe
A
B
C
B+
93%
90%
61%
70%
50%
59%
72%
86%-89%
of families live in a neighbourhood with good access to play areas [2]
of 11 year olds have a playgournd available in the area where they live [1]
of 5 year olds are taken to a playground weekly [1]
of children visit the natural environment at least once a week [3]
of the park-going public perceive their local parks to be in a good condition [4]
of park managers think their parks are in good condition [4]
of young people think it's safe for children to play outside during the day in their neighbourhood [5]
of parents and 11 year olds perceive their neighbourhood to be fairly or very safe [2, 6]
Places most often visited by children
Urban parks
Playgrounds
Playing fields
Country parks
48%
28%
26%
16%
Physical activity in green spaces was more intense than physical activity performed in non-green spaces or indoors in a UK study. Yet the majority of time was spent indoors or being active close to home, and a lot of physical activity takes place in non-green spaces.[7]
The above figures are from a report by Natural England [3]
After school - child reports
The lack of outdoor activity further away from home is likely influenced by parental safety concerns and children’s level of independent mobility.[8]
Although the neighbourhood safety benchmark received a 'B+', both traffic and crime related safety concerns should be considered in future Report Cards, as should the proportion of children who are allowed to leave the house to play outdoors unsupervised.
Weekends - child reports
Weekends - parent reports
Initial evidence from the MCS provides an indication of the % of children who are allowed out with friends unsupervised on most days [6]:
Recommendations
Time outdoors should be encouraged as a means of promoting physical activity on a daily basis. Not only should there be suitable provision of green spaces in private and public places,[9] but it is also important to ensure that there are safe urban (non-green) environments where children can be physically active.[7]   Social community events could be organised by local councils to create opportunities for families to interact so that children can make friends to play with,[10] and to build trust within the neighbourhood. Sports clubs outside of school, in the community, can be just as valuable as clubs at school.[11] Thus, more opportunities for physical activity clubs in the neighbourhood should be made available since they may be more accessible to some children. Involving children and young people in the design process for building new or updating existing facilities might promote increased use of such areas.[10]
References [1] Goisis A, Sacker A, Kelly Y. Why are poorer children at higher risk of obesity and overweight? A UK cohort study. Eur J Public Health, 2015;26:7-13. [2] Pouliou T, Sera F, Griffiths L, et al. Environmental influences on children's physical activity. J Epidemiol Community Health 2015;69:77-85. [3] Natural England. Monitor of engagement with the natural environment: A pilot to develop an indicator of visits to the natural environment by children. Natural England and other parties, 2016. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/498944/mene-childrens-report-years-1-2.pdf [4] Heritage Lottery Fund. State of UK public parks 2014: Renaissance to risk? 2014. Available at https://www.hlf.org.uk/state-uk-public-parks [5] Brooks F, Magnusson J, Klemera E, et al. HBSC England National Report 2014. Hatfield, UK: University of Hertfordshire, 2015. [6] Platt L. Millennium Cohort Study: Initial findings from the age 11 survey. London, UK: Centre for Longitudinal Studies, 2014. [7] Wheeler BW, Cooper AR, Page AS, et al. Greenspace and children's physical activity: a GPS/GIS analysis of the PEACH project. Prev Med 2010;51:148-52. [8] Jago R, Thompson JL, Page AS, et al. Licence to be active: parental concerns and 10-11-year-old children's ability to be independently physically active. J Public Health (Oxf) 2009;31:472-7. [9] Lachowycz K, Jones AP, Page AS, et al. What can global positioning systems tell us about the contribution of different types of urban greenspace to children's physical activity? Health & Place 2012;18:586-94. [10] Veitch J, Salmon J, Ball K. Individual, social and physical environmental correlates of children's active free-play: a cross-sectional study. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 2010;7:11. [11] Pearce MS, Basterfield L, Mann KD, et al. Early predictors of objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behaviour in 8–10 year old children: the Gateshead Millennium Study. PLoS One 2012;7:e37975. Abbreviations: MCS, Millennium Cohort Study