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women in V4 labour market

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(Wo)(Men) in V4 Labour Market
In all V4 countries we can see quite significant difference betweeen monthly earning of women and men. The regional average for average earnings is 18.7%. With the exception of Poland the gap in average earnings is higher than in the case of median earnings. The segregation of labour market plays its role here – the average earnings are increased by men employed in well-paid sectors (horizontal segregation) or on top positions (vertical segregation). The biggest gap in average salaries is in Slovakia and the Czech Republic – in both cases over 20% followed by Poland with 17% and the smallest gap is in Hungary – only 13%. For median data for only 3 countries are avaiable and the situation is quite different. The biggest gap is in Poland (22%) followed by Slovakia (17%) and the smallest in the Czech Republic.
Note: For Hungary no data is avaiable considering median monthly earnings. Sources: Czech Republic: Czech statistical Office - Focused on Women and Men Yearbook 2015; Hungary: http://docplayer.hu/2970117-Foglalkoztatottsag-es-kereseti-aranyok-1998-2005-munkaugyi-adattar-employment-and-earnings-1998-2005-labour-statistics.html; Poland: Yearbook of labour statistics 2015; Slovakia: http://www.statistics.sk/pls/elisw/casovy_Rad.procDlg
Gender wage gap (2014)
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Gender wage gap reduction – average (2008–2014)
Differences between average and median gap are visible also when it comes to development over years. The good news is that in all countries (with the exception of Hungary) the gap in average monthly earnings decreases in the course of time. The biggest reduction since 2008 has happend in the Czech Republic (4%), on the other hand the development is not linear and therefore there are several ups and downs in all V4 countries. In Hungary the average gap increased and in 2014 decreased back to the original value from 2008, i.e. 13% – which is still the lowest gap in the whole region.
Sources: Czech Republic: Czech statistical Office - Focused on Women and Men Yearbook 2015; Hungary: http://docplayer.hu/2970117-Foglalkoztatottsag-es-kereseti-aranyok-1998-2005-munkaugyi-adattar-employment-and-earnings-1998-2005-labour-statistics.html; Poland: Yearbook of labour statistics 2015, 2012, 2010; Slovakia: http://www.statistics.sk/pls/elisw/casovy_Rad.procDlg
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Gender wage gap development – median (2009–2014)
Also in the case of gap between median earnings the development is not linear. Nevertheless, according to avaiable data the median gap decreased in the Czech Republic, Slovakia and also in Poland. Slovakia went through the most significant reduction between 2009 to 2014 (2.34%) followed by the Czech Republic (1.93%) and Slovakia (1.34%).
Note: For Hungary data considering median monthly earnings is unavaiable. Sources: Czech Republic: Czech statistical Office - Focused on Women and Men Yearbook 2015; Poland: Yearbook of labour statistics 2015; Slovakia: http://www.statistics.sk/pls/elisw/casovy_Rad.procDlg
University degree - women
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Women and men according to educational attainment (last avaiable data)
Even though women earn less money then men, they are better educated in all V4 countries. The ratio of men with secondary education without the A-level exam is higher compared to women. With the exception of Slovakia there is more women with secondary education with the A-level exam and in all V4 countries women prevail among people with university degree. In last years women outnumber men among unioversity graduates and now there is more women with an university degree also among the whole population. The biggest difference is in Poland (60% women to 40% men) ans the smalles in the Czech Republic (52% women to 48% men).
Sources: Czech Republic: Czech statistical Office - Focused on Women and Men Yearbook 2015; Hungary:  http://www.ksh.hu/nepszamlalas/docs/tablak/teruleti/00/00_1_1_4_3.xls; Poland: Demographic yearbook of Poland 2015 ESTIMATIONS BY BALANCE METHOD — population at age 13 years and more, Demographic yearbook of Poland 2014; Slovakia: https://slovak.statistics.sk/wps/wcm/connect/78225fe8-ea78-4ded-a1ed-f0281a0522ab/Tab_9_Obyvatelstvo_SR_podla_najvyssieho_dosiahnuteho_vzdelania_scitanie_2011_2001_1991.pdf?MOD=AJPERES
University degree - men
Secondary  (with A level exam) -  women
Secondary  (with A level exam) -  men
Secondary  (without A level exam) -  women
Secondary  (without A level exam) -  men
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Female unemployment rate (2015)
The female unemployment rate ranges from 6,2% in the Czech Republic to more than twice as much (12.9%) in Slovakia. The regional average is 8.5%. In Slovakia there is also the biggest difference between male and female unemployment rate – 2.5%. On the other hand in Hungary there are more unemployed men than women – but the difference is not much significant, only 0.5%.
Source: Unemployment rate, LFS by sex and age – indicators: Labour force participation rate, OECD.Stat, 2015
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Labour participation rate of women aged 15 to 64 (2015)
Labour participation rate illustrates the gender inequalities on the local labour market even better than the unemployment rate because it enlightens the differences caused by parenthood – or more specifically motherhood. Even though more than 60% women aged 15 to 64 in all V4 countries participate in the labour market (the regional average is almost 64%), there still prevail a gender gap – 13.6% in average. The biggest share of economically active women is in the Czech Republic – almost 67% but the country we can also see the biggest difference – 14.6%. The lowest share of women participating in labour market we can find in Poland (61.4%) and the smallest difference is in Hungary (13.1%). Nevertheless in Poland and Slovakia the gender difference is quite similar – 13.4% and 13.2% respectively.
Source: Unemployment rate, LFS by sex and age – indicators: Labour force participation rate, OECD.Stat, 2015
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Labour participation rate of women aged 25 to 34 (2015)
The cohort of women aged 25 to 34 is crucial because women usually have children which affects their position in the labour market. The share of economically active women in this age is higher than the overall participation – this is caused mostly by the fact that younger women study and therefore are not yet working. On the other hand the gender difference is in this age cohort significantly higher compared to population aged between 15 and 64. Similarly to previous figure the biggest gap is in the Czech Republic – more than one quarter and at the same time the female participation rate is the lowest one (67.6%). As indicated this situation is – at least partially – caused by relatively long maternity/parental leave and a lack of childcare facilities. In all remaining V4 countries the labour participation rate of women is over 70%, the highest one in Poland with 78.2%. The gender difference ranges from 14.6% in Poland to 24.5% in Slovakia.
Source: Unemployment rate, LFS by sex and age – indicators: Labour force participation rate, OECD.Stat, 2015
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Labour participation rate of women aged 45 to 54 (2015)
Significantly higher female participation rate and smaller gender difference is in the age cohort 45 to 54. The regional female participation rate average is 86.3% and the average gender gap is 3.2%. In contrast to the previous figure in this case the Czech Republic is the regional champion in both participation rate (92.5%) and gender difference (2%). The lowest female labour participation rate in this age cohort is in Poland (78.5%) where we can find also the biggest gender difference – 6% which is three times as high as in the Czech Republic.
Source: Unemployment rate, LFS by sex and age – indicators: Labour force participation rate, OECD.Stat, 2015
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Labour participation rate of women aged 55 to 59 (2015)
The last figure captures female labour participation rate in the age cohort 55 to 59 years. It seems that also towards the end of the economic activity women are endangered in the lebour market even though not as much as women between 25 and 34 years. The highest participation rate we can find in the Czech Republic – 77.2% and the smallest gender difference in Slovakia – 7.9%. Slovakia is the only country in the region where the difference in this age cohort is below 10%. The regional laggard is Poland with only 55.4% women in this age participation in the labour market. This fact also causes the biggest gender gap – 16%. With such a low participation rate and such a big gender difference the situation of women in Poland aged 55 to 59 is even worse than of the age cohort 25 to 34.
Source: Unemployment rate, LFS by sex and age – indicators: Labour force participation rate, OECD.Stat, 2015