The most common contaminants found in household water in Craig County were total coliform bacteria, E. Coli, manganese, hardness, iron, and sodium.
Total coliform bacteria presence is an indication that surface water may be entering a well and other more harmful microorganisms may be present. Total coliform was found in 60% of the Craig County samples. E. coli were found in 24% of the samples and are a sign that human or animal waste is entering the water supply.
Hardness is composed of calcium and magnesium, which originates in bedrock such as limestone. Sodium is associated with water softeners, which are commonly used to remove hardness.
Iron and manganese are considered nuisance contaminants and can cause staining and a metallic taste. Sodium can have negative health effects in excess levels.