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made in china 2025

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Made in China 2025
The goal of China's industrial policies is to position Chinese companies
to dominate advanced manufacturing in the Chinese market -- and secure an advantage in the global marketplace.
"Smart manufacturing" sectors targeted
New energy vehicles and energy-saving vehicles

High-tech maritime components and vessels

New and renewable energy equipment 

Industrial robots 

Biomedicine and high-performance medical devices

Large agricultural machinery and equipment

Mobile phone chips

Aerospace and aviation equipment

80%
70%
80%
70%
80%
60%
40%
10%
100%
40%
Targeted sectors cover
of China's industrial value-added manufacturing industries today.
% share of Chinese market by
2025
Made in China
2025
also plans to replace foreign technologies that are used in smart manufacturing:
High-end numerical control machines

Robot core components

Robots

Cloud and big data

IT for smart manufacturing

Industrial software

Localize
Substitute
Compete Globally
A variety of government funds have been established to develop smart manufacturing technologies. As much as $161 billion may be spent over 10 years just to develop microchips.
51
Between 2014 and 2016, the Ministry of Science and Technology launched:
3D printing projects
41
sensor and robotics projects
21
cloud computing and big data projects
Chinese companies also receive direct financial support and tax rebates for high-tech enterprises and software development.
share of R&D spending as % of operating revenue
invention patents per 100 million CNY in total revenue
average annual growth in productivity
use of digital design tools in R&D activities
1.68
1.1
6.5%
84%
The Chinese government has set metrics for Chinese companies to achieve smart manufacturing success. Among them:
Lack of management expertise and skilled workers. Job losses will mount among less-skilled workers.
Government targets and overspending could overwhelm Chinese industries' absorptive capacity.
Weaknesses in the strategic plan
Overlapping plans at the central, provincial and local levels can result in inefficient allocation of funds and duplication. 
"The strategy is likely to succeed in elevating a small vanguard of Chinese manufacturers. ...These frontrunners are likely to dominate their sectors on the Chinese market and become fierce competitors on international markets."

"At the same time, Made in China 2025 will probably fail...to catalyze a comprehensive, broad-scale technological upgrading across the Chinese economy. The deep transformation of China's entire manufacturing base will most probably not be achieved within the ambitious timeframe set by the Chinese leadership."

"This is no reason for complacency...Made in China 2025 is a forceful and smart challenge to the leading economies of today. European and U.S. decision makers in politics and business will have to provide equally smart answers to this challenge."
Mercator Institute for China Studies
Andrea Durkin for
Source: The Mercator Institute for China Studies August 12, 2016 paper entitled Made in China 2025: The making of a high-tech superpower and consequences for industrial countries by authors Jost WübbekeMirjam MeissnerMax J. ZengleinJaqueline Ives and Björn Conrad