EDRG644 Comp Lit Model

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Comprehensive Literacy Model
Spring 8 Week 1, 2015      |     Final Project     |     Joanna Moore
In Partial Fulfillment of EDRG644 Teaching Reading and Writing
- Phonological   Awareness
Group Work
Guided Instruction
A Comprehensive Literacy Model for Effective Literacty Instruction is comprised of equal parts...
Independent Learning
Balanced Instruction
Balanced literacy instruction involves learning, applying, and developing reading and writing skills in varied formats, as well as during an intervention block where focused help is provided  (Cooper, Kiger, & Robinson, 2012, p. 152).
Ongoing Assessment
at its core
- Phonics
- Fluency
- Vocabulary
- Comprehension
- Writing
This slide packet will address how to apply the traits of effective literacy instruction, give classroom examples, review daily, weekly, and monthly goals, and speak to the importance of using assessments to guide instruction and align learning targets to state standards.
Auditory Learner
Identifying Learning Abilities and Styles
As defined by Cooper et al. (2012) a
Lacks focus, poor comprehension
Struggles with vocabulary
Visual Learner
struggling reader
is "any student …having difficulty
learning to read" (p. 346).   Difficulties may stem from one or many of the components of effective literacy instruction, but no two students are alike.  Students' abilities, talents, strengths, and weaknesses need to be understood in order to be addressed.  By getting to know students as individuals, as well as through the results of  universal assessments, curriculum can be catered to meet each student's uniqueness.   Creating literacy blocks by student abilities is one means to focus on students' needs daily.
English Language Learner
By breaking down the teaching of phonological awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, comprehension, and writing, the importance of and how to apply these techniques in the classroom become apparent.  Aligning instruction to state standards is essential throughout the planning process. As evidenced in research conducted by the University or Oregon (n.d.), the main difference between good and poor readers lies in the good reader's phonological processing ability ("Phonemic Awareness," n.d.).  Phonological Awareness (PA), or the ability to understand the sequence of sounds that make up words, is essential when learning to read.   The below examples can be catered to learner's diverse needs.
Phonological Awareness
Segment: /th//a//t/ Blend: that Listen for onsets: /tha/t Listen for rimes: tha/t/
PA in the Classroom and at Home:
Phonics is a system of remembering how to read words (Armbruster, et al., 2009, p.11).  To improve students’ ability to understand words in grades K-2, classroom focus should center on developing students’ knowledge of letter-sound relationships, such as the relationships between graphemes and phonemes*, organizing these sounds into logical sequences, and providing ample in-text examples through reading and writing activity sheets (Armbruster, et al., 2009, p.16).  Books can be read together or echo-read for practice.
• Mike’s Big Bike, • Aloha Goodbye, Aloha Hello, • Owl and the Moon, • Splat the Cat Makes Dad Glad, • Frog Food, • Boots and Shoes, • At the Zoo, • Nat! • Can Tam See?
by Elena Matos by Ellen Garin by Arnold Lobel based on Rob Scotton creation, text by Alissa Heyman (from the Froggy and Friends series) by Emma Benman by Nancy Ling written by Nitty Jones and Illustrated by Amy Sparks by Patricia Crotty and Illustrated by Dan Vick by Beverly Kels and illustrated by Carol Schwartz
Decodable Book List
*What is a
A letter or letter combination that represents a single phoneme.
-a single sound!
The practice of reading improves with repeated opportunities for students to read, reread, and be read to.  To improve fluency, teachers should model reading with expression, break text into clauses and phrases, and help students practice these skills (Armbruster, et al., 2009, p.21).   Additionally, three practices improve the vocabulary students learn and retain.  Although most vocabulary is learned indirectly, direct engagement with oral language, being read to, and reading extensively independently can improve students’ vocabulary and thus their abilities to understand material (Armbruster, et al., 2009, p.30).   Through learning student strengths, teachers can diversify how fluency and vocabulary is practiced.  Flashcards, role playing using vocabulary, and varied opportunities to read help students with diverse needs.
Fluency and Vocabulary
Effective fluency and vocabulary lessons...
Activate previous knowledge.
Encourage students' questions.
Include structured previews.
Involve brainstorming.
Use repetition.
Encourage incidental learning.
Involve direct instruction and group work.
Review the text.
Direct teaching of vocabulary.
Choose words to teach.
(Cooper et al., 2012, p. 221)
(Cooper et al., 2012, Ch. 3)
To improve reading comprehension, teachers must monitor the process of comprehension; it is not a natural phenomenon (Armbruster, et al., 2009, p.41; McCardle & Chhabra, 2004, p. 222).  The use of semantic and graphic organizers, asking questions about material, and asking students to summarize what they have read are techniques proven to improve students’ reading comprehension (Armbruster, et al., 2009, p.45).  
Teachers model  
Readers develop
of cognitive processes
actions readers can take to
readers practice strategies through
until internalized and independent mastery is reached.
enhance cognitive processes.
guided assistance
(Cooper et al., 2012, p. 217-218)
Writing and reading are constructive processes that build upon one another (Cooper et al., 2012, p. 305).  When taught together, reading and writing improve achievement, promote communication, and help develop critical thinking skills (Cooper et al., 2012, p. 306).  Similar to reading comprehension, vocabulary, and fluency instruction, activating background knowledge, teacher modeling, constructive, ongoing, and active feedback all help create great writing skills.    Teachers must plan enough time for writing and rewriting while noting factors that may hinder student success, such as mobility issues, poor handwriting, and a lack of focus.
Select topic
Proofread and Edit
The Writing Process
(Cooper et al., 2012, p. 321)
6 + 1 Traits and Text Selections
Sentence Fluency
Word Choice
Madam President by Lane Smith Chrysanthemum by Kevin Henkes Thank you, Mr. Falkner by Patricia Polacco
Dork Diaries: Tales from a Not-So-Fabulous Life by Rachel Renee Russell Mix It Up! by Herve Tullet A Bad Case of Stripes by David Shannon
How to Bake a Book by Ella Burfoot Punctuation Takes a Vacation by Robin Pulver Dearly Nearly Insincerely.  What is an Adverb by Brian Clearly
Maya Angelou: Poetry for Young People, Edited by: Edwin Graves Wison, PhD If You Give a Mouse a Cookie by Laura Numeroff Bat Loves the Night by Nicola Davies
Where the Sidewalk Ends, by Shel Silverstein Alexander and the Terrible, Horrible, No Good, Very Bad Day by Judith Viorst Hatchet by Gary Paulsen
Skippyjon Jones by Judy Schachner Diary of a Worm by Doreen Cronin
The Giving Tree by Shel Silverstein Click, Clack, Moo: Cows That Type by Doreen Cronin Stone Fox by John Reynolds Gardiner
The 6 + 1 Traits Rubric is a great guide to teach important elements of literacy and reading through textual examples.  The rubric can also be applied to student writing to give students diverse opportunities to demonstrate their knowledge.  The above text selections are great references for skills practice (such as, PA, phonics, vocabulary, fluency, decoding, and comprehension) while modeling characteristics important to good writing (Education Northwest, n.d.).
Goal Setting, Planning, and Standards
Students' progress is evaluated based on beginning of year goals.
(Cooper et al., 2012; McCardle et al., 2004;, n.d. )
Goals, as seen in the next slide, should be set based on student needs and aligned directly to state standards.  After evaluating past performance, teachers should begin the year with an initial assessment, align weekly goals to grade-level goals, develop working groups for literacy rotations, and begin a focus wall that displays daily and weekly achievements and targets.  Next, intervention blocks, middle of the year testing, and continued focus on PA, phonics, vocabulary, fluency, compression, and writing should guide instruction.   State standards give ample opportunities for applying such skills in diverse means.  For example, standards for second grade like, "Create audio recordings of stories or poems; add drawings or other visual displays to stories or recounts of experiences when appropriate to clarify ideas, thoughts, and feelings (CCSS: SL.2.5) ("Second grade reading…" n.d., standard 1.1.d.) can be practiced using a variety of subject matter, such as any of the decodable books listed previously.  Other second grade standards like, "Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words (CCSS: RF.2.3) ("Second grade reading…" n.d., standard 2.3.a.) guide teachers to create structured and scaffolded goals.  By the end of the year, the teacher should use compiled data to support decisions regarding students' future placement. Throughout this process, assessment should be ongoing, both formally and informally.  Formative assessments and progress monitoring will help gauge daily levels of understanding, while summative assessments will shape re-teaching and future goal setting opportunities.  Once again, these assessments should align with state standards to ensure all grade-level targets are being met.
Goal Setting, Planning, and Standards
Final changes before end of year.
Students' progress is evaluated based on beginning of year goals.
Teacher looks at her new students' past records
To Do:
Initial assessments of students' knowledge. Goals set!
To Do:
Weekly goals reflect students' mastery of skills in subject areas.
Teacher develops small groups based on student abilities.
Focus Wall emphasizes important concepts covered each day/week.
Small groups adjusted throughout the year depending on student needs.
To Do:
MOY assessments taken to ensure appropriate growth.
To Do:
EOY assessments help make judgments regarding students' future placement.
Blocks for individual reading and writing created.
Learn reading skills and strategies including PA, phonics, vocabulary, and fluency instruction.
Apply reading skills and strategies to practice reading and writing.
Continue to practice and improve reading comprehension and writing through practice.  
Intervention block maintained throughout year to help struggling students.
Student progress reports completed
(Cooper et al., 2012; McCardle et al., 2004;, n.d. )
Teacher looks at her new students' past records.
Students' progress is evaluated based on beginning of year goals.
1) Beginning of Year (BOY): teacher evaluates students' performance, sets goals, makes working groups for students. 2) Performance data is connected with test times and standards to see where students have done well or need additional assistance.  Teacher designs an instructional plan based on this information. 3) Teacher observes students' in-class activity and uses such formative assessments as conversations and pretests to adjust instruction. 4)  Formative daily and weekly assessments show immediate progress results and summative assessments show improvement over time. 5)  Student data for struggling students is reviewed with parents to show how students may improve if students stay on track. 6) Teacher discusses behavior, performance and attendance data and set goals for remainder of school year. 7)  Data coaches and teachers then work with students throughout the year. 8)  Administrators review performance data to assist with the improvement process.   9)  Other teachers with different strengths step in to assist struggling students. 10)  Teachers combine efforts reviewing data together to identify trends.       Frequent meetings are set for grade level or by subject. 11)  Continued progress monitoring flags students at risk of falling behind or       getting off track.
Programs, such as Response to Intervention (RtI) and laws like the Colorado READ Act, reflect the importance of compiling data about student progress in order to provide administrators, teachers, parents, and students with relevant information regarding student learning.  As referenced by the Data Quality Campaign (n.d.), the following steps help direct progress monitoring (formative assessment) and student evaluation (summative assessment).
Data Compilation Steps to Improve Student Learning
(, n.d.)
12)  Teacher meets with parents of struggling students and other teachers develop intervention plans. 13)  Tutors and other programs for intervention are used with the parents' approval. 14)  Teacher meets again with student to set goals. 15)  By the end of the year, progress monitoring, the intervention programs, and other efforts help identify students   in need of additional care, or even retention. 16)  Data is used to support recommendations and class placement. 17)  The data is also used to evaluate the teacher's progress, noting the students she helped, and those still in need of improvement, despite efforts. 18)  Over the summer, teachers meet to identify trends, discuss effective practices, and devise strategies for the        upcoming school year (, n.d.).
Assessments and Standards (cont.)
In early grades, testing through the DIBELS Next system, for example, provide insight into areas where teachers and interventionists need to focus in order to help students read at grade level.  This data is then used in the above intervention steps to formulate strategies of intervention.  
Student Data Chart Examples
DIBELS Next Progress Monitoring: Beginning, Middle, and End of Year
Top 10 List for Effective Literacy Instruction
To develop comprehensive literacy programs, teachers and administrators must understand the population of students served, learn up-to-date, engaging, and relevant reading, fluency, comprehension, and writing strategies, have ample textual examples to reference, align goals to state standards, and learn how laws and data compilation programs can assist in progress monitoring of both student and teacher progress alike.   Differentiating instruction to meet diverse student needs will ensure instruction is effective and engaging for varied learning styles, strengths, and abilities, as well.    
Whole-Class Work
Guided Instruction
Group Work
Independent Reading
- Phonological   Awareness
- Phonics
- Fluency
- Vocabulary
- Comprehension
- Writing
1) Over prepare. 2) Get to know students. 3) Provide good instruction. 4) Practice careful, systematic observations. 5) Identify types of intervention needed for each student. 6) Select appropriate materials. 7) Practice ongoing assessment. 8) Vary how literacy is assessed. 9) Use the appropriate data and statistical analysis to measure student progress over time. 10) Make instruction flexible and fluid to respond to the needs of students.
(Cooper et al., 2012; ReadingRecoveryCNA, 2010; “Screening and diagnosis," Comprehensive Reading Solutions, 2012, p. 10; Bracey, 2000)
Key Elements
Varied Instruction
Armbruster, B. B., Lehr, F., Osborn, J., & National Institute for Literacy (U.S.). (2009). Put reading first: The research building blocks of reading instruction : kindergarten through grade 3 (3rd ed.). C. R. Adler (Ed.). Retrieved from Bracey, G. (2000). Thinking about tests and testing: A short primer in "assessment literacy."  Washington, DC: American Youth Policy Forum. Retrieved January 8, 2015, from Cooper, J. D., Kiger, N. D., & Robinson, M. D. (2012). Literacy: Helping students construct meaning (8th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. (n.d.). Data rich info graphic. Retrieved from Education Northwest. (n.d.) 6+1 Trait Writing.  Trait Definitions. Retrieved from McCardle, P. D., & Chhabra, V. (2004). Teaching phonemic awareness and phonics. In The voice of evidence in reading research (pp. 153-186). Baltimore, MD: P.H. Brookes Pub. Phonemic awareness: Instruction. (n.d.). Retrieved January 23, 2015, from ReadingRecoveryCNA (2010, July 16). Effective Literacy Practices-Assessing Through Close Observation. Retrieved from "Screening and diagnosis." Comprehensive Reading Solutions. (2012). Retrieved from Second grade reading, writing, and communicating standards. (2009). Colorado Department of Education, 1-26. Retrieved from