(Cooper et al., 2012; McCardle et al., 2004; DataQualityCampaign.org, n.d. )
Goals, as seen in the next slide, should be set based on student needs and aligned directly to state standards. After evaluating past performance, teachers should begin the year with an initial assessment, align weekly goals to grade-level goals, develop working groups for literacy rotations, and begin a focus wall that displays daily and weekly achievements and targets. Next, intervention blocks, middle of the year testing, and continued focus on PA, phonics, vocabulary, fluency, compression, and writing should guide instruction.
State standards give ample opportunities for applying such skills in diverse means. For example, standards for second grade like, "Create audio recordings of stories or poems; add drawings or other visual displays to stories or recounts of experiences when appropriate to clarify ideas, thoughts, and feelings (CCSS: SL.2.5) ("Second grade reading…" n.d., standard 1.1.d.) can be practiced using a variety of subject matter, such as any of the decodable books listed previously. Other second grade standards like, "Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words (CCSS: RF.2.3) ("Second grade reading…" n.d., standard 2.3.a.) guide teachers to create structured and scaffolded goals. By the end of the year, the teacher should use compiled data to support decisions regarding students' future placement.
Throughout this process, assessment should be ongoing, both formally and informally. Formative assessments and progress monitoring will help gauge daily levels of understanding, while summative assessments will shape re-teaching and future goal setting opportunities. Once again, these assessments should align with state standards to ensure all grade-level targets are being met.