Village - Level Planning - Approaches

published by FDR India

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Participatory Planning in India
....need for a right balance in decentralization
Top-down Approach
Bottom-up Approach
Central Government
State Government
Local Government
Principles of effective Local Governance
Principle of Subsidiarity
Democratic Decentralisation
Delineation of Functions
Devolution in Real Terms
Citizen Centricity
*GPFT&GPMS in West Bengal
Here a fixed percentage of the plan budget is transferred to panchayats, for allocation as per local decision making This has helped optimise resource use and reduce the dependency on planned investments which were implemented in a top down fashion Stake formation in Gram Sabhas and a much wider base for citizen engagement with decision making
Objectives: Capacity Building of the Panchayat Raj Institutions in Karnataka Provide formula-based Block grants to 1341 GPs in the ‘Most Backward Talukas’ Revamp financial management and procurement system Improve the effectiveness of service delivery across a range of services that have devolved on them under the Karnataka Panchayath Raj Act, 1993
The Project had four components  : 1) Grants to gram panchayats  2) Capacity building of gram panchayats 3) State oversight and 4) Program management and implementation. Unique model  of performance based grant allocation system for the gram panchayats built into the project wherein the gram panchayats must qualify for the annual performance assessment benchmark to access the discretionary grants.
Peoples Plan in Kerala
Gram Swaraj  in Karnataka
*Gram Panchayat Facilitating Team Gram Panchayat Management System
Decentralisation : Few State Examples
States such as Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal have demonstrated that the transfer of funds, functions and functionaries is the key to more successful decentralisation.
Gram Jyothi Scheme
1) Drinking water and Sanitation 2) Health and Nutrition 3) Education 4) Infrastructure 5) Natural Resources Management 5) Agriculture 7) Social Security & 8) Poverty Reduction
Focus on
Clusterization of Gram Panchayats for efficient utilization of resources should be taken up immediately. To the extent possible, the funds devolved should be untied.
Similar decentralization efforts need to be replicated in urban areas. Rs.1000 to 1500 per capita has to be allocated to elected ward committes in municipalities.
An Independent Ombudsman has to be established at district level to supervise the use of funds and to initiate stringent action in case there were irregularities and corruption.
A look at the new decentralisation initiatives in Telangana
Substantial devolution of funds on per capita basis Decentralized planning process through preparation of Gram Panchayat development plans
Prepared by:  R & D Unit